Muhammad Ahmad (a.k.a. Max Stanford Jr.) was a pivotal figure within the Black Liberation Movement and struggle for Black Power in the 1960s and 70s; notably, he was the national field chairman of the Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM) and a direct target of J. Edgar Hoover's COINTELPRO. Ahmad was also an active member of the Republic of New Afrika (RNA). As a theoretician of revolutionary Black radicalism, he has authored numerous pamphlets, and has been the editor of a variety of political publications. In the early 1970s he established the African Peoples Party in an effort to keep the flame of revolutionary nationalism alive. He is the author of We Will Return in the Whirlwind: Black Radical Organizations 1960-1975, published by Charles H. Kerr in 2007.