Charles Jennings is Associate Professor in the Department of Security, Fire, and Emergency Management at John Jay College of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York and is the founding Director of the Christian Regenhard Center for Emergency Response Studies (RaCERS). He has studied and conducted after action reviews of major events including the Boston Marathon Bombing, Pulse Nightclub Mass Shooting, and major fires. Charles has a broad public safety background, having served operational posts as a firefighter, chief fire officer, and Emergency Medical Technician, and administrative positions overseeing police, fire, EMS, and emergency management.